Geophysical borehole exploration is a part of a complex of measures aimed to define the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of oil, gas or water deposits in particular region. The traditional understanding of GBE (geophysical borehole exploration) has managed to transform into a huge branch of geophysics. In a broader sense, borehole drilling exploration results are not only represented by documents, depicting the area of a couple of square meters, but also with details on the composition and particular feature of the surrounding area within tens or hundreds of meters. The intensive use of borehole exploration techniques allowed achieving better results in site organization and exploitation of the natural deposits. Thus, the borehole exploration contributes to a sharp reduction in sampling during drilling, providing the drilling company with comprehensive data on the area, as well as reducing operational expenses.

Borehole exploration in practice

The borehole exploration methods are designed to study the geological section and identify the layers of different lithology in particular, determine the angles and azimuths of their fall, the deposit of minerals in the profiles and estimate porosity, permeability and reservoir properties of the surrounding rocks and their possible oil and gas production. A technical inspection of a borehole is carried out via special equipment (used to define the diameter, curvature, the presence of cement in the annulus and etc.), as well as walls sampling, casing perforation and so on. The physical properties of rocks, defined as a result of research in boreholes, serve to obtain the particular geological information directly.

The efficiency of borehole exploration is fairly considered to be very high, especially in oil and structural geology, where borehole drilling is followed by geophysical surveys. The methods are widely applied in the search for metallic and non-metallic minerals.

The industry has recently welcomed a brand-new device that heralds a new era of advanced mechanical ventilation: an extremely compact VOC removal sensor that can be equipped in virtually any exhaust system.

To adjust the threshold, the most advanced gadgetry offers setting one of the six possible levels to enhance the peak air flow. The adjustment is made on the potentiometer located under the front cover of the device.

When VOC level doesn’t exceed the permissible level, the air flow remains on the minimum level. Green light under the clear lens on the front panel indicates that indoor air quality is satisfactory. When the level of air pollution exceeds the set value, the peak air flow mode will be activated automatically, lasting as long as the air quality will not match the specified value. The maximum air flow quickly reduces the concentration of pollutants and exhaust device returns to the normal regime. Activation of hyper-regime is possible within 20 minutes intervals. All this not only ensures excellent indoor air quality, but also limits heat loss, since while the level of pollutants does not exceed a predetermined value, the air flow remains minimal.

Setpoint activation of peak air flow can be adjusted at any time by removing the front cover and changing the settings of the potentiometer.

This system is designed primarily for small spaces (close spaces with bulky equipment, bunds walls and etc.), areas where high emissivity materials are used, e.g. treated wood, laminate, carpeting and finishing materials on the basis of plastic. Another natural domain of application is ships cabins and mobile homes. Among other things, this version is ideal for proper odour control systems in dressing rooms (for efficient sweat smell removal).

Ventilation of underground car parks requires powerful units designed for continuous operation. This circumstance gave rise to the use of two fan types: centrifugal and axial with straight blades ones. The fans of medium and large capacity are installed in separate engine rooms. The air intake should be implemented at a distance from pollution sources.

Rainwater hoods as a complex of car parking ventilation system installation

Depending on the type of the construction it may be necessary to carry out the organisation of the rainwater in addition to installing the car park ventilation system. The installation of a true to type rainwater hood requires solving a number of problems. The exhaust grilles should be located above the level of the roadway and sidewalk. The exhaust air flow rate should be sufficient to ensure rapid dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere; the recommended rate should be at least 10 m/sec. The exhaust ducts must be sealed against the ingress of rainwater, especially in vertical ducts connected directly with fans.

Noise pollution nuances

An average covered car parking ventilation system has a tremendous impact on the level of noise. Due to the high level of noise near the car parking lot, created by supply and exhaust fans in conjunction with an exceptional sound reflecting ability of the materials utilised in construction, the sound of the approaching car is not always clear, which represents particular risk to people passing by the parking area. In this regard, in order to ensure the safety of the installation, the silencing mechanism are typically mounted.
By the way, an additional risk factor is represented by dim lighting; however, with the introduction of LED technologies, boasting its cost-efficiency and effectiveness, the problem seems to be partially solved.

Leeds City located in West Yorkshire, northern England, is just 310 kilometers north-west of London. The first reference to the settlement has been discovered in the Domesday Book, which saw the light of the day in the far 1098, while the status of a city has been granted to Leeds in 1207. As industrial revolution marched in the kingdom, Leeds enjoyed an impressive portion of economic benefits, reflected in the population rise: from 10k in the late 17 century to 30k at the end of the 18; the year of 1840 mentions a record of 150,000 population.

A major reason for the rapid growth consisted in the city’s transportation geographical position and transportation capabilities, which contributed to the city flourishing. Due to the development of the transport network on the River Ayr in 1699 (which provided links with continental Europe), the construction of Leeds – Liverpool Canal (which linked the region with the West Coast of the UK) and the railroad system in 1848, the city attracted considerable funds for its further development. Therefore, in the nineteenth century up to half of British exports passed through Leeds.

Nowadays the heart of Yorkshire is a bustling city with lots of shopping malls, well-preserved Edwardian buildings, numerous nightclubs and bars. There are dozens of hotels in Leeds to choose from: whether you are running on a tight budget or looking to make the most of your trip, Leeds hotels selection has always something for everyone to offer. Mentioned below is the list of must-see attractions.

  • Royal Arsenal. The museum reflects the themes of war, knightly tournaments and hunting
  • Municipal Art Gallery that houses a rich collection of art dated by XX century
  • Kirkstall Abbey Museum
  • Harewood House
  • Medical Museum Tucker
  • Tropical World (one of the UK’s largest greenhouses)

Doubtlessly, the use of scrap metals sharply reduces operational expenses: while the cost of metal is reduced by eliminating the costs of implementing the preceding operations preparation of raw materials and smelting. In general, the capital intensity of using recycled metals is lower than the one from ore.

Energy saving issue in the production of metals represents particular importance in the context of the energy crisis, as most metals are obtained using energy-intensive metallurgical or electrochemical processes. Therefore, a scrap metal dealer involved in processing scrap metal can reduce energy consumption for aluminum by 94%, 83% for copper, 78% for zinc, 74% for steel and 64% for lead.

Currently, almost 100 % of steel, zinc, lead, magnesium, copper, silver and gold as well as 30-60 % of other metals is processed by scrap metal enterprises. Taking into consideration the technological imperfections and a huge field for improvement in scrap metal processing industry, this metallurgical branch will hold its positions tightly for long years to come.

Mentioned below are the main incentives and benefits of all the scrap metal types:

  • A reduced need in natural resources extraction (which are seriously depleted by now)
  • A broad range of environmental improvements
  • A considerable reduction of fuel consumption needed to acquire raw materials
  • A decrease in global metals scattering and dispersion

As noted above, the reuse of metals and alloys can be defined as recycling, since virtually the same metal can be used in production up to 100 times; and the fact is underlined taking into account the that metallurgical enterprises typically adopt direct recovery (meaning that the metals are returned for recycling within the workshop of the factory).